Iraqi Communications News


Zain Iraq posts Strong Growth in Q1

By John Lee.

Revenues at Zain Iraq reached $275 million in the first quarter of 2018, a 9-percent increase year-on-year.

EBITDA reached $96 million, up 12 percent, reflecting an EBITDA margin of 35 percent.

The operation reported a net profit of $8 million, substantially up on the $283,000 profit recorded for Q1, 2017.

The expansion of 3.9G services across the country and restoration of sites in the West and North, combined with numerous customer acquisition initiatives, especially in core regions, resulted in impressive addition of 2.2 million customers (18 percent increase) to reach 14.5 million.

Also contributing to the operation’s financial revival was the significant growth of data revenues, robust growth in enterprise (B2B) segment, and the revamping of its call centers significantly improving customer service.

(Source: Zain)

Hunting For Troll Farms In Northern Iraq

This article was originally published by Niqash. Any opinions expressed are those of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of Iraq Business News.

In Iraqi Kurdistan, as many as a dozen different Facebook pages, all with hundreds of thousands of followers, coordinate their fake news. And wealthy political candidates are likely paying for the service.

Last week, campaigning began for the Iraqi federal elections, to be held May 12. Almost overnight campaign posters and billboards were mounted on every main street in Iraqi Kurdistan as candidates in these elections boasted of what they would do for voters. Campaigning was also beginning on Kurdish-language social media, on the most popular platforms like Facebook and YouTube. But, just as with any momentous occasion in Iraq, the upcoming elections also gave rise to fake, or false, or misleading news and pictures.

The question is, who is behind it?

To find out who might be making things up on Kurdish-language social media, NIQASH’s team in Iraqi Kurdistan sent messages to more than 50 different Facebook pages that are known to have posted false reports in the past. The most common methods of misleading the page viewers is through the use of older pictures for current events, the addition of misleading information to an existing item or, in some cases, digital manipulation of pictures. Mostly the disseminators did not use particularly sophisticated methods to falsify the information they posted.

The messages sent by NIQASH were read by almost all of the page administrators to whom they were addressed. While some did not answer the enquiry, a small minority agreed to answer the questions, but only on condition of anonymity.

One such administrator insisted that their false reports were simply the result of mistakes. “It was certainly not intentional,” he wrote. However he could not deny that in some cases the mistakes resulted in better engagement with users.

Another page administrator said the opposite, admitting the false reports were posted on purpose. “People want this kind of news and they share it widely,” he argued. “We are just serving their desires.”

The reason that false news spreads is because it is often the most interesting or provocative to users, Rawan Jamal, the director of Terra Target, a local company that provides social media services in Iraqi Kurdistan, explained. “It is a problem all over the world. It is quite clear that the mission of false news is to either send a certain message with an ulterior motive, or to make a page more popular,” he said.

It is hard to know whether there really are “troll farms” as we know them – groups of people employed to agitate on the Internet – in Iraqi Kurdistan. Certainly, there are wealthy individuals with an agenda paying either to boost posts or to keep administrators onside. Some of those wealthy individuals are also running for office next month.

One administrator who said he only worked for one of the pages for a short time told NIQASH that some of the Facebook pages were connected and cooperated on certain issues. “We had 12 pages and we all worked together. We were bought by a businessperson who would then give us instructions on what we should be promoting,” he explained.

“Buying” Facebook pages sounds like an odd thing to do but in Iraqi Kurdistan, if a certain page becomes well known and has a large number of followers, this becomes a possibility (see our story on Arabic social media for more on this).

It is also possible to “rent” space on these popular Facebook pages and several local media organisations do this, paying the page administrators as much as US$1,000 every month to post on their behalf. Sometimes the paid-for posts are produced by the media organization itself and other times, they are meant to harm opponents of the organization’s owners.

We cannot really control these pages because they are operating on an international platform and on the terms and conditions of the companies that run the platforms.
As another page administrator pointed out he, and most of the other page administrators, are young Iraqis who would be unemployed if they were not doing this for a living now.

Aras Husain, the administrator of the popular Sabaty Xoshaxisty Facebook page, told NIQASH that a number of political parties and candidates have already offered money for his page to work with them.

The pages would focus on one individual or issue and then simultaneously post untrue information about that.

It is hard to gauge how often coordination between Facebook pages happens. It could also be something of a chicken-or-egg question. Posting false news, that generates an emotional response from users, gains the Facebook page more followers, says the administrator of the Awene24 Facebook page, who did not want his real name used. “False news gets more readers than other news and gets more likes and comments,” he concedes. And when another page also shares an emotion-generating post, it may not necessarily be about a coordinated campaign, he says, it could just be what he calls “a little theft” to help a page gain followers.

“Conflicts between political parties have also increased the number of false posts,” he notes and predicts that upcoming elections will only make this worse.

“Most of the pages are fighting a media war and are competing with each other, because mostly they belong to a specific party,” says the administrator of another popular Kurdish-language page, who did not want either the page or his name mentioned. “As election day gets closer, we will increase the number of our posts and try to reach the biggest number of readers. We will pay for that.”

All of this creates a lot of noise that makes it hard for the real information to get through to voters. And it is difficult for the local authorities to do much about it.

At one stage, the regional Ministry of Culture had advocated that Facebook pages register themselves in order to prevent defamation and counterfeit identities, says Farhang Gomashiny, a spokesperson for the ministry. “Some of the pages registered their names and identities in 2014,” Gomashiny notes. “But the rest of them never came to us and we think these are the pages spreading disinformation.”

“We have asked parliament to pass new regulations about these Facebook pages,” he says, adding that certain Facebook pages are making a habit of shocking people and of spreading disinformation.

The Iraqi Kurdish parliament did pass a law in 2008 that was supposed to prevent the abuse of means of communication. Some of what the pages that spread bad information do, does qualify as defamation, agrees Omid Mohammed Saleh, a spokesperson for the Iraqi Kurdish ministry of transport and communication. “But we cannot really control these pages because they are operating on an international platform and on the terms and conditions of the companies that run the platforms,” he concludes.

 

Tracking Down the Iraqis Behind Fake News Epidemic

This article was originally published by Niqash. Any opinions expressed are those of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of Iraq Business News.

Last week, a rumour swept social media in Iraq: The authorities overseeing election campaigning in Iraq had prevented 75 female candidates from running in the election for unethical behaviour. There was even a sex tape posted, featuring one of the candidates.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, the rumour was not true. The sex tape appeared to be real but the fact that female candidates had been expelled, was not. Authorities at the country’s Independent High Electoral Commission, or IHEC, denied it and the story was disproven fairly quickly. Nonetheless many Iraqis still believed the story.

A few hours later another rumour hit the news: The candidate in the sex tape had committed suicide, under pressure from rigid social rules and traditions. This too was untrue and the would-be politician even appeared on a television news show to deny it. But after all that, you do wonder which Iraqis are going to vote for that candidate – that is, if they even think the person is still running – and alive.

“False reports became a factor in creating a hostile environment for female participation in the political process,” says Hanaa Edwar, the influential head of the Al Amal (Hope) civil society organization. “There were dozens of falsified reports and pictures and unfortunately a lot of Iraqis were deceived by these.”

This is obviously not the first such incident on Iraqi social media platforms like Facebook and YouTube. Social media is an important source of information for many in Iraq, yet often the most viral pieces of information are not fact checked, nor is the provenance verified. There have even been incidents where false reports – or so-called “fake news’ – have been seen to cause violence, even death. Some of the false posts are obviously fake, alerted in an unprofessional way.

But there are others that have clearly been altered using programs like Photoshop in a very professional way, although these seem to be in the minority. No matter how well made they are, one thing many of the false reports have in common is that they have been posted with a clear political agenda. So the question is: Who is actually behind these kinds of posts?

Were the items being posted simply to increase follower numbers with some outrageous news story, such as that about the political candidate’s sex tape? Or was the phenomenon a more dangerous one than that, especially as the Iraqi elections near? There are already rumours about so-called “electronic armies” – Iraq’s version of the “troll factory”, where human users of social media are employed in the service of a certain agenda to sew dissent or to spread misleading reports as part of a disinformation campaign meant to confuse.

Civil society activist Edwar believes they exist. “these organized electronic armies have prepared themselves very well for the Iraqi elections,” she told NIQASH. “They are producing false posts and spreading them on social networks. This is what happens when there is a lack of transparency, when officials refuse to comment, and when the media itself is unprofessional because of affiliations with political parties. That is the real reason for this disastrous turn of events.”

It is difficult to find the sources of the false reports although some Iraq-based Facebook pages are more likely than others to post misleading information. Contacting the administrators of these pages is tricky. Some of them blocked NIQASH’s enquiries and others threatened to disrupt – or “hack” – the Facebook account from which the enquiries came.

In November 2017, one Facebook page catering to an Iraqi audience showed a large crater in the ground and said it was caused by a mid-November earthquake with an epicentre near the Iran-Iraq border. The photo of the crater was published on Facebook within ten minutes of the actual earthquake so it was there waiting for any Iraqis desperately searching for information about the natural disaster.

After verification, it turned out the picture was actually from an incident in Morocco and had nothing to do with the Iraqi earthquake. But it drew Iraqi eyes to that page, at a time when there were hardly any other photos from the earthquake area.

“I remember that news,” says Haider Jalil, a 17-year-old administrator who works on the page in question; Jalil did not want to give his real name for fear of losing his job. “We found that picture and we quickly posted it on our page to get more followers.”

His page doesn’t always create news this way. Jalil, who works with around 10 colleagues, searching for exciting or interesting news items and sharing them on Facebook, says most of the time they take pictures from established news outlets. “We don’t want to hurt anybody,” he says. “We are just trying to be the best and most popular page we can be. Our aim is to get thousands of followers. In fact, we have half a million followers and we did this all without spending any money to promote ourselves.”

The motivations for posting false reports on pages like Jalil’s then, have more to do with increasing the page’s popularity than changing the country’s politics, although they may also inadvertently do this.

However now it seems that Iraqi politicians are also using the popular Facebook pages, which have built up numbers of followers over time.

Arakan al-Shammari was one of seven administrators working on a Facebook page with 300,000 followers. However he withdrew from the role after he noticed some of his fellow administrators were starting to post more politically-based things, praising one political party and attacking others, and in particular with false reports.

“Then I discovered that some of the page admins had agreed to sell the page’s work to one of the political parties for US$5,000, and they were paying US$500 monthly for each administrator who agreed to keep working for the page,” al-Shammari explained to NIQASH.

Al-Shammari and three other colleagues refused to take up the offer. They were removed as administrators of the page. “I wanted to let people know what had happened and wrote about it on my personal page,” al-Shammari continued. “But I was threatened – the remaining admins said they would get thousands of people to report my page to Facebook, which would get it closed down – and I was told to delete what I had said about [the sale of the page].”

Further research by NIQASH shows that al-Shammari’s page is not the only one. Several other pages with a big followings have recently changed their names. Some have taken up the names of political parties or politicians. Some appear have increased access to funding as Iraqi users of Facebook are now getting a lot more advertisements asking them to follow or like certain pages, as the elections near. Some appear to be working together and often publish false posts at similar times (see NIQASH’s story on Kurdish false content for more on this).

Samir al-Dulaimi works for a bank in Baghdad and he says that he and his colleagues have noticed an increase in demand for local credit cards – this is fairly unusual because many Iraqis don’t even have bank accounts. “Our bank is one of the few in Baghdad to provide Visa cards,” al-Dulaimi explains. “New customers can apply for the cards and must deposit at least US$1,000. When we distribute questionnaires asking customers why they want a credit card, the majority say they want to make online purchases and to use the cards on social networking sites.”

“There is no doubt that political parties are behind some of the false news on paid Facebook pages, especially with the elections so close,” says Iradah al-Jibouri, a spokesperson at the media department at the University of Baghdad. “They make use of people’s preferences and they are frightening people with fake news. It’s easy,” he adds, “because unfortunately there are no laws about what is happening on social media.”

His department has introduced a new course in media studies that is all about combatting fake news, al-Jibouri adds.

The country’s 1968 Publications Law says violators can get up to seven years in jail for insulting the government and the country’s penal code has a clause from 1969 that makes defamation a crime. But none of that really covers what happens online.

There is an urgent need for new laws on digital information sources, agrees Ahmed Hamdallah, a lecturer in the law faculty at the University of Qadisiyah. “There are ongoing efforts to pass laws related to online publishing and there is also a draft of an information crimes law, which could also solve some problems.”

It’s an important subject to students in his faculty, he adds, noting that many of them have chosen to do their thesis or doctorates on the law around fake and false news in Iraq. In fact, most recently he supervised a master’s thesis by one female student at Nahrain University in Baghdad called: “Criminal responsibility for the promotion of false and spurious rumours on social media”.

“In societies living in doubt, false news cultivate suspicion and makes use of tense political, security or social conditions,” says Yousef al-Mousawi, a psychologist based in Diwaniyah. “Dozens of false reports are published on Iraqi Facebook everyday but only some attract a lot of attention – usually people react to those reports that relate to their own religious or political orientation. The social conditions help the spread of false reports and make mainstream news unimportant.”

And all this is because of ignorance about the way social media is being used during the elections, al-Mousawi concludes.

Dozens of Iraqi Journalists enter Parliamentary Race

By Mustafa Saadoun for Al Monitor. Any opinions expressed here are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Iraq Business News

A record 30 Iraqi journalists and media figures have entered the political arena and presented their candidacies for the May 12 parliamentary elections, joining a variety of blocs and lists.

Though not all the candidates have yet announced their participation publicly, the High Electoral Commission lists has revealed the list of registered names, which include some women working in journalism. They all aspire to join parliamentarian Sarwa Abdul Wahid of the Change Party, who once worked for the American AlHurra TV.

Many of these candidates will be listed as independents.

Manal Almotasim is one journalist who aspires to reach the Iraqi parliament. Almotasim, who has worked for a decade in the Iraqi media and has presented various political TV programs, decided to brave the political world and join the Qarar al-Iraqi coalition headed by Sunni businessman Khamis al-Khanjar.

Almotasim has a good number of fans thanks to her work in the media and her presence on the screen. She told Al-Monitor, “Those who like me as a journalist might not want me in the political world that they are so fed up with. … At the same time, my audience might get me to the parliament.”

She added, “If I do not succeed, it would not mean that I will stop pursuing my career in media. It would be an experience like any other.”

Prominent journalist Ahmed Mulla Talal previously competed in two elections — in 2010 with the Supreme Council led by Ammar al-Hakim and again in 2014 with Nouri al-Maliki’s State of Law Coalition. This time, Talal is running with the Al-Madani Party, which is funded by the director of Al-Huda bank, Hamad al-Moussawi.

Al-Madani is also fielding journalist Hadee Jalo Maree, who often criticizes politicians on social media. Maree told Al-Monitor that reporters and journalists are entering politics like doctors and intellectuals have done in the past, saying they’re working to change the makeup of the political class that tends to only represent certain sects.

He added that while not all the new candidates will make it into the government, “the point is to try and change the existing national, sectarian and religious approach in qualifying electoral candidates.”

Not everyone is pulling for this new class of candidates. Ziad Ojeili, head of the Journalistic Freedoms Observatory in Iraq, does not believe that journalists should run for election.

“Journalists would lose popular support if they win, as they would become the politicians they have been criticizing for the entirety of their career,” Ziad Ojeili said, though history shows that it is difficult for any candidate to reach parliament if not through the sectarian pipelines that have supplied parliament members for the past 14 years.

Ojeili told Al-Monitor, “Running in elections is everyone’s right, and journalists are part of the political world. … But a successful journalist might not be a successful politician. People need journalists to act as their voice, not as politicians.”

These candidates are distributed across many blocs. Some are running with the Popular Mobilization Units, such as famous TV presenter Wajih Abbas, whose program on Sadrist Al-Ahd TV was very popular, while others like Falluja TV presenter Omar al-Jamal have joined al-Qarar al-Iraqi bloc, which considers the PMU a terrorist group.

(Picture credit: Essam al-Sudani)

A Distracting Debate on Banning Porn in Kurdistan

This article was originally published by Niqash. Any opinions expressed are those of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of Iraq Business News.

By Histyar Qader.

One might assume that the long-stalled Kurdish parliament would have other things to talk about: One of the most pressing issues up for debate revolves around banning porn websites.

At the end of January, 13 members of parliament in the semi-autonomous northern region of Iraqi Kurdistan submitted a memorandum to the presidency asking for porn websites to be banned. Seven of the 13 came from the region’s Islamic parties, which might reasonably be expected to have a religious objection to the porn sites.

But six of the MPs were from less religiously inclined political parties including the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the oppositional Change movement.

It’s actually an idea that was first mooted in 2015 but the Kurdish parliament stopped working, so it’s only just being brought back up now, says Najiba Latif, a member of one of Iraqi Kurdistan’s Islamic political parties and a signatory to the memo asking for the ban.

“We want to ban porn sites to prevent any young person from opening such a site,” Latif explained. “We feel these sites pose a danger to the young people of Kurdistan.”

“These sites are foreign to our society and they cause alienation among our young people,” added Awaz Hamid, a member of the Kurdistan Democratic Party, or KDP, noting that she is opposed to porn websites for sociological reasons not religious ones.

The memo-writers did not offer any scientific evidence to support their case, but Latif says that more work is being done and that this will include an opinion poll on the subject, before a draft resolution of the ban is read in parliament.

The whole issue was the butt of many jokes on Iraqi Kurdish social media, but it has also had serious ramifications, showing up the role that religion still plays in politics here.

Only one group in parliament has declared its opposition to the draft resolution. “The draft resolution has shown the reality of the Islamists and the supposed secular parties in Kurdish politics,” says Abu Karwan, a senior member of the Kurdish Communist party, which opposes the ban on porn.

“Such a ban is a violation of personal freedoms and the issues should not be handled this way. Given the current parliamentary set up the MPs won’t be able to oppose the resolution for fear of offending voters, most of whom are Muslim. And because elections are getting closer, this ban will also attract a lot more attention,” he points out.

Sarwad Salim, a Christian MP in Iraqi Kurdistan, points out that a better way to deal with this issue would be an educational campaign for local youth. Parliament shouldn’t be regulating this, he argues.

The kerfuffle about a ban on porn is just one example of the less important issues the Kurdish parliament is currently occupying itself with. “There are more important laws that affect the lives of citizens, but these have not been discussed by parliament,” says the head of the Kurdish parliamentarian’s union, Namaat Abdallah.

A lot of politicians want to keep away from those more important topics and they certainly don’t want to tackle controversial subjects shortly before the elections. Rules around a porn ban would be acceptable to most local voters as the majority are religious, he suggests. It’s an easy win.

Even if the legislation is eventually approved in Iraqi Kurdistan, it may not do much good. The Iraqi federal parliament also passed a resolution in 2015 to block porn sites. But locals keep finding ways to access them.

“In practice, this decision was not successful,” says Zana Rostai, a Kurdish politician in Baghdad. “So it was never enforced by the government.”

If the government passes the resolution then it will be our duty to enforce the rules, Omed Mohammed, the spokesperson for Iraqi Kurdistan’s Ministry of Transport and Communications, based in Erbil, told NIQASH.

“But in practical terms that is going to be very difficult. There are over three million porn sites in the world and it would be difficult to block such a huge number. If we use the word “sex” as a term for blocking, then it would be difficult for anyone to access anything, including scientific or medical research, online,” Mohammed points out.

This line of argument is clear to many locals and is part of the reason why they suspect their parliament is engaged in such useless debates. The aim is to create a fuss in the local media, to achieve at least something – such as passing this resolution – that most of the population will get behind and then tell voters about all they have accomplished, in the hopes of winning another seat.

“Political parties in Kurdistan are not honest with their voters,” says Omed Rafiq, a political scientist who heads a local think tank, the Centre for Future Research. “They are always afraid to clash with mainstream opinions and the resulting loss of votes. The existing confusion is all about scoring political points,” he concludes.

Zain Iraq, Ericsson Offer Boosted Data Services

By John Lee.

In preparation for the anticipated increase in data traffic and demand in Iraq, Zain Iraq has invested in the implementation of Ericsson’s award-winning virtual Evolved Packet Core (vEPC) solution nationwide.

The deal is Ericsson’s first vEPC contract in Iraq, and one of the first in the Middle East and Africa (MEA) region.

Ali Al Zahid, CEO, Zain Iraq says:

“Since we have introduced 3G on a large scale in Iraq, data traffic has surged, and demand continues to grow. This will present exciting opportunities as we move forward. This deal will bring greater connectivity and virtual capabilities to our subscribers.”

Rafiah Ibrahim (pictured), Head of Ericsson Middle East and Africa, says:

“The deployment of our vEPC will not only provide the scale and reach Zain requires, but it will also provide the demand management and advanced cloud infrastructure that will allow them to address new revenue streams in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and Internet of Things (IoT).”

Ericsson vEPC provides verified solutions addressing a large number of vertical use cases, opening up new operator opportunities and improving deployment flexibility.

(Source: al Bawaba)

UNDP Iraq Launches Trilingual App

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Iraq launched a trilingual mobile application for iOS and Android to become the first ever UNDP Country Office to have such an application and one of a few within the UN community worldwide.

UNDP Iraq’s Communications Unit led the development process of this application with support on information technology from the Regional Hub.

The Unit explained:

Out of over 37.2 million Iraqis, more than 30.2 million are mobile users*. The UNDP Iraq mobile application was developed not only to keep Iraqi users well informed of UNDP’s support to the people of Iraq, but also to reach out to a wider global audience.

“With its user-friendly design, the application is very informative in terms of highlighting UNDP’s work and impact as well as the country’s progress towards respective Sustainable Development Goals.

The mobile application features news, impact stories, publications, a media library, infographs and visualized data in Arabic, Kurdish and English languages. It is now available for free download from App Store and Google Play.

(Source: UNDP)

Asiacell Revenues Up

By John Lee.

Qatar-based Ooredoo has announced that revenue at its Asiacell subsidiary in Iraq increased 6 percent to QAR 4.5 billion, while and EBITDA increased 3 percent to QAR 2.0 billion, for the year ended 31th December 2017.

EBITDA margin was put at 44 percent.

In a statement, the company said:

A key opportunity in 2017 was restoring our network sites in the liberated areas and helping customers living there to reconnect to our services.

“As a result, Asiacell increased customer numbers by 8% to reach almost 13 million as network recovery advanced in the liberated areas in the north and west of the country.

(Source: Ooredoo)

Zain returns to Profitability in Iraq

By John Lee.

Zain Iraq has reported a net profit of $29 million for 2017, up from a loss of $5 million the previous year.

In a statement, the company said:

Despite the challenging yet improving socio-economic circumstances facing the operation, Zain Iraq performed exceptionally well when compared to the previous year.

“Revenues grew consecutively on a quarter-on-quarter basis, with full-year revenues reaching USD 1.1 billion, a 2% increase Y-o-Y and EBITDA reached USD 382 million, down 3%.

“The operation reported a net profit of USD 29 million, up 657% Y-o-Y compared to a loss of USD 5 million in the previous year, with EBITDA margin standing at 35%. The expansion of 3.9G services across the country and restoration of sites in the West and North, combined with numerous customer acquisition and retention initiatives, especially in core regions, resulted in impressive addition of two million customers (16% increase) to reach 14.7 million.

“Also contributing to the operation’s financial revival was the significant growth of data revenues, strong growth in the corporate segment, increase in voice revenues through the launch of numerous segmented offers, and the improvement of customer experience and customer services.

“The strength of the Zeyara holy season was also a factor as Zain Iraq heavily promoted connections and exclusive deals with roaming its partners. Cost optimization was also a key focus in major items such as repair and maintenance.

(Source: Zain)

Zain returns to Profitability in Iraq

By John Lee.

Zain Iraq has reported a net profit of $29 million for 2017, up from a loss of $5 million the previous year.

In a statement, the company said:

Despite the challenging yet improving socio-economic circumstances facing the operation, Zain Iraq performed exceptionally well when compared to the previous year.

“Revenues grew consecutively on a quarter-on-quarter basis, with full-year revenues reaching USD 1.1 billion, a 2% increase Y-o-Y and EBITDA reached USD 382 million, down 3%.

“The operation reported a net profit of USD 29 million, up 657% Y-o-Y compared to a loss of USD 5 million in the previous year, with EBITDA margin standing at 35%. The expansion of 3.9G services across the country and restoration of sites in the West and North, combined with numerous customer acquisition and retention initiatives, especially in core regions, resulted in impressive addition of two million customers (16% increase) to reach 14.7 million.

“Also contributing to the operation’s financial revival was the significant growth of data revenues, strong growth in the corporate segment, increase in voice revenues through the launch of numerous segmented offers, and the improvement of customer experience and customer services.

“The strength of the Zeyara holy season was also a factor as Zain Iraq heavily promoted connections and exclusive deals with roaming its partners. Cost optimization was also a key focus in major items such as repair and maintenance.

(Source: Zain)